Updated with four new chapters on consensus algorithms, Ethereum , cryptography, and consensus protocols; Get to grips with Solidity, Web3. The use of sidechains provides one of the most effective solutions. Time removed from the root chain is also transferred to Ethereum. You can think of Bitcoin as a distributed consensus state machine, in importance by PoW to determine the longest chain and therefore the current state.
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Andreas с огромным энтузиазмом продолжил смотреть за развитием Ethereum, но был занят написанием книжки Mastering Bitcoin , потому не воспринимал конкретного роли позднее. Как говорит Виталик в своём посте "Ethereum Предыстория" :. Начиная с декабря , Виталик и Gavin усовершенствовали и развили идею, вкупе создавая протокольный уровень, который и стал Ethereum.
Основоположники Ethereum задумывались о блокчейне без определенной цели, который могу бы поддерживать широкий диапазон приложений, будучи программируеммым. Мысль заключалась в том, что используя блокчейн общего назначения, таковой как Ethereum, разраб может запрограммирование своё конкретногое приложение бещ реализации нижележащих устройств, к примеру одноранговой сети, блокчейнв, алгоритмов консенсуа и так дальше. Платформа Ethereum была спректрована, чтоб абстрагировать эти детали и предоставить детерминированную и безопасную среду программирования для децентрализованных блокчейн приложений.
Подобно Satoshi, Виталик и Gavin не просто изобрели новейшую технологию, они по новенькому соеденили новейшие изобретения с существующими технологиями и сделали макет для проверки идемонстрации собственных идей миру. Основоположники работали годы и уточняли видение. И 30 июля , 1-ый Ethereum блок был смайнен. Мировой комп начал служить миру. Стадия может включать подрелизы, известные как "жесткие форки", которые изменяют функциональность таковым образом, что они стают обратно несопоставимыми.
Четыре главных шага разработки имеют кодовые имена - Frontier , Homestead , Metropolis , и Serenity. Как и стадии разработки, так и промежные твердые форки показаны на следющей временной шкале, которая датируется номером блока:. Block 0 Frontier -- исходный шаг Ethereum, который продолжался с 30 июля по март Block , Ice Age -- Твердый форк для роста экспонциональной трудности, чтоб мотивировать переход на PoS, когда он будет готов.
Block 1,, Homestead -- 2-ая стадия Ethereum, запущен в марте Block 2,, Tangerine Whistle -- Твердый форк, который изменит расчет газа для определенных операций ввода и вывода и очистит накопленное состояние от атаки denial-of-service DoS , которая употребляла низкую стоимость газа для данной атаки. Block 2,, Spurious Dragon -- Твердый форк, чтоб разные векторы DoS атак и остальные чистки состояния. Не считая того, механизм защиты от повторных атак.
Block 4,, Metropolis Byzantium -- Метрополис это третяя стадия развития Ethereum, имеющийся на момент написания данной книжки, запущен в октябре Byzantium это 1-ый из 2-ух жетских форков, запланированных для Metropolis. Опосля Byzantium в Metropolis есть ещё один твердый форк: Constantinople.
За Metropolis последует заключительный шаг развития Ethereum под кодовым заглавием Serenity. You can think of Bitcoin as a distributed consensus state machine , where transactions cause a global state transition , altering the ownership of coins. The state transitions are constrained by the rules of consensus, allowing all participants to eventually converge on a common consensus state of the system, after several blocks are mined. Ethereum is also a distributed state machine.
But instead of tracking only the state of currency ownership, Ethereum tracks the state transitions of a general-purpose data store, i. A key—value data store holds arbitrary values, each referenced by some key; for example, the value "Mastering Ethereum" referenced by the key "Book Title".
In some ways, this serves the same purpose as the data storage model of Random Access Memory RAM used by most general-purpose computers. Ethereum has memory that stores both code and data, and it uses the Ethereum blockchain to track how this memory changes over time.
Like a general-purpose stored-program computer, Ethereum can load code into its state machine and run that code, storing the resulting state changes in its blockchain. Two of the critical differences from most general-purpose computers are that Ethereum state changes are governed by the rules of consensus and the state is distributed globally.
Ethereum answers the question: "What if we could track any arbitrary state and program the state machine to create a world-wide computer operating under consensus? Правила консенсуса Правила консенсуса Ethereum описаны в спецификации the Yellow Paper см. Транзакции Транзакции Ethereum представляют собой сетевые сообщения, которые включают кроме всего остального отправителя, получателя, значение и полезную нагрузку. State machine Ethereum state transitions are processed by the Ethereum Virtual Machine EVM , a stack-based virtual machine that executes bytecode machine-language instructions.
EVM programs, called "smart contracts," are written in high-level languages e. However, there are plans to move to a PoS weighted voting system, codenamed Casper , in the near future. Economic security Ethereum currently uses a PoW algorithm called Ethash , but this will eventually be dropped with the move to PoS at some point in the future. Клиенты Ethereum has several interoperable implementations of the client software, the most prominent of which are Go-Ethereum Geth and Parity.
As soon as you start reading about Ethereum, you will immediately encounter the term "Turing complete. What exactly does that mean? The term refers to English mathematician Alan Turing, who is considered the father of computer science. In he created a mathematical model of a computer consisting of a state machine that manipulates symbols by reading and writing them on sequential memory resembling an infinite-length paper tape. With this construct, Turing went on to provide a mathematical foundation to answer in the negative questions about universal computability , meaning whether all problems are solvable.
He proved that there are classes of problems that are uncomputable. Specifically, he proved that the halting problem whether it is possible, given an arbitrary program and its input, to determine whether the program will eventually stop running is not solvable. Alan Turing further defined a system to be Turing complete if it can be used to simulate any Turing machine.
Ethereum can compute any algorithm that can be computed by any Turing machine, given the limitations of finite memory. Ethereum programs run "everywhere," yet produce a common state that is secured by the rules of consensus. Hearing that Ethereum is Turing complete, you might arrive at the conclusion that this is a feature that is somehow lacking in a system that is Turing incomplete.
Rather, it is the opposite. Indeed, sometimes systems are found to be "accidentally Turing complete. However, Turing completeness is very dangerous, particularly in open access systems like public blockchains, because of the halting problem we touched on earlier. For example, modern printers are Turing complete and can be given files to print that send them into a frozen state.
The fact that Ethereum is Turing complete means that any program of any complexity can be computed by Ethereum. But that flexibility brings some thorny security and resource management problems. An unresponsive printer can be turned off and turned back on again. That is not possible with a public blockchain. Turing proved that you cannot predict whether a program will terminate by simulating it on a computer. In simple terms, we cannot predict the path of a program without running it.
Turing-complete systems can run in "infinite loops," a term used in oversimplification to describe a program that does not terminate. It is trivial to create a program that runs a loop that never ends. But unintended never-ending loops can arise without warning, due to complex interactions between the starting conditions and the code. In Ethereum, this poses a challenge: every participating node client must validate every transaction, running any smart contracts it calls.
Whether by accident or on purpose, a smart contract can be created such that it runs forever when a node attempts to validate it. This is effectively a DoS attack. And of course, between a program that takes a millisecond to validate and one that runs forever are an infinite range of nasty, resource-hogging, memory-bloating, CPU-overheating programs that simply waste resources.
How does Ethereum constrain the resources used by a smart contract if it cannot predict resource use in advance? To answer this challenge, Ethereum introduces a metering mechanism called gas. As the EVM executes a smart contract, it carefully accounts for every instruction computation, data access, etc. Each instruction has a predetermined cost in units of gas.
When a transaction triggers the execution of a smart contract, it must include an amount of gas that sets the upper limit of what can be consumed running the smart contract. The EVM will terminate execution if the amount of gas consumed by computation exceeds the gas available in the transaction.
Gas is the mechanism Ethereum uses to allow Turing-complete computation while limiting the resources that any program can consume. It can only be purchased as part of a transaction, and can only be bought with ether. Ether needs to be sent along with a transaction and it needs to be explicitly earmarked for the purchase of gas, along with an acceptable gas price.
Just like at the pump, the price of gas is not fixed. Gas is purchased for the transaction, the computation is executed, and any unused gas is refunded back to the sender of the transaction. Ethereum started as a way to make a general-purpose blockchain that could be programmed for a variety of uses. DApps represent a broader perspective than smart contracts.
A DApp is, at the very least, a smart contract and a web user interface. More broadly, a DApp is a web application that is built on top of open, decentralized, peer-to-peer infrastructure services. In the term "Web 2. Web 2. The concept of DApps is meant to take the World Wide Web to its next natural evolutionary stage, introducing decentralization with peer-to-peer protocols into every aspect of a web application.
Ethereum also has a very different development culture. In Bitcoin, development is guided by conservative principles: all changes are carefully studied to ensure that none of the existing systems are disrupted. For the most part, changes are only implemented if they are backward compatible.
Existing clients are allowed to opt-in, but will continue to operate if they decide not to upgrade. Mining is the lifeblood of proof-of-work. Ethereum miners - computers running software - using their time and computation power to process transactions and produce blocks. In decentralized systems like Ethereum, we need to ensure that everyone agrees on the order of transactions.
Miners help this happen by solving computationally difficult puzzles to produce blocks, securing the network from attacks. More on proof-of-work. Technically, anyone can mine on the Ethereum network using their computer. However, not everyone can mine ether ETH profitably. In most cases, miners must purchase dedicated computer hardware to mine profitably. While it is true anyone can run the mining software on their computer, it is unlikely that the average computer would earn enough block rewards to cover the associated costs of mining.
To further explore mining profitability, use a mining calculator, such as the one Etherscan provides. Every transaction is mined included in a new block and propagated for the first time once, but executed and verified by every participant in the process of advancing the canonical EVM state. Watch Austin walk you through mining and the proof-of-work blockchain. Ежели вы эксперт по данной для нас теме и желаете внести собственный вклад, отредактируйте эту страничку и посыпьте ее собственной мудростью.
Вас поблагодарят, и вы поможете обществу Ethereum! Используйте эту упругость шаблон документации. Спросите нас в канале content на нашем Сервер Discord. Помогите перевести эту страничку. Перевести страничку. Что такое Ether ETH?
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And while most assume the crypto holders store their digital assets on wallets, these applications and devices function as storage systems for private keys. You do not leave the Ethereum blockchain. Instead, the blockchain assigns all ether holders a private key that allows them to access their ether balance and use it as they please.
When you transfer ether, the blockchain updates your balance to reflect the change in the ownership of the transferred coins. It is these private keys that wallets are designed to store. Note that without the private key, a crypto holder cannot access his digital asset.
This is why it is paramount to keep keys secure and away from lurking eyes. If anyone manages to steal your private key, then they have successfully stolen the digital assets associated with such a key. Below is an example of what a private key looks like please do not send any funds to this address :. Note that you would have to pay a fee denominated in ether whenever you execute a transaction on Ethereum or trigger a smart contract.
How Does Ethereum Work? But the question is, how does Ethereum achieve this? At a high level, Ethereum consists of several key components:. Smart contracts: Rules governing under what conditions money can change hands. Consensus mechanism: The method for validating and recording data on the blockchain; it also helps to secure the network and is responsible for issuing new tokens into circulation.
Smart contracts. No single point of failure. Data is completely transparent, reliable and immutable. Accounts: Each user can have an account, which shows how much ether the user has. Smart contract code: Ethereum stores smart contracts, which describe the rules that need to be met for money to be unlocked and transferred. Smart contract state: The state of the smart contracts. Consensus mechanism. There are three main benefits to the transition:.
Because validators will not need to purchase and operate expensive mining equipment, it will reduce the barrier for entry for people to participate in the network. This should help to improve overall decentralization and network security. How do users interact with Ethereum? Externally owned accounts EOAs : The accounts that normal users use for holding and sending ether. Contract accounts: These separate accounts are the ones that hold smart contracts, which can be triggered by ether transactions from EOAs or other events.
DISCLOSURE The leader in news and information on cryptocurrency, digital assets and the future of money, CoinDesk is a media outlet that strives for the highest journalistic standards and abides by a strict set of editorial policies. Subscribe to The Node, our daily report on top news and ideas in crypto. Sign Up. Related stories. Other Topics. You can do so by proposing it for discussion on an AllCoreDevs call. Potential outcomes of this stage are:.
Iterate towards a final proposal: after receiving feedback from all relevant stakeholders, you will likely need to make changes to your initial proposal to improve its security or better meet the needs of various users. Once your EIP has incorporated all the changes you believe are necessary, you will need to present it again to Protocol Developers. You will then move to the next step of this process, or new concerns will emerge, requiring another round of iterations on your proposal.
Given the high coordination costs of network upgrades everyone needs to upgrade simultaneously , EIPs are generally bundled together in upgrades. Note: network upgrades are usually activated on testnets before being activated on the Ethereum Mainnet. This flow, while very simplified, gives an overview of the significant stages for a protocol change to be activated on Ethereum.
EIP Champions should familiarise themselves with prior work and proposals before creating an EIP which can be seriously considered for deployment on the Ethereum Mainnet. The initial draft of an EIP is unlikely to be implemented on the Ethereum Mainnet without edits or changes. Generally, EIP Champions will work with a subset of Protocol Developers to specify, implement, test, iterate, and finalize their proposal.
Historically, these working groups have required several months and sometimes years! While some EIPs are straightforward technical improvements with minimal nuance, some are more complex and inherently tradeoffs which will affect different stakeholders in different ways. This means some EIPs end up being more contentious within the community than others. There is no clear playbook on how to handle contentious proposals.
Since Protocol Developers have no way to force people to adopt network upgrades, they will generally avoid implementing EIPs where the contentiousness outweighs the benefits to the broader community. EIP Champions are expected to solicit feedback from all relevant stakeholders. If you find yourself the champion of a contentious EIP, you should try and address objections to build consensus around your EIP.
Additionally, EIPs need to be implemented across all client implementations, which are managed by distinct teams. Part of this process usually means convincing multiple teams of Protocol Developers that a particular change is valuable and that it helps end-users or solves a security issue. Having many stakeholders with different motivations and beliefs means that disagreements are not uncommon.
Generally, disagreements are handled with long-form discussion in public forums to understand the root of the problem and allow anyone to weigh in. Typically, one group concedes, or a happy medium is achieved. If one group feels strongly enough, forcing through a particular change could result in a chain split. A chain split is when some stakeholders protest implementing a protocol change resulting in different, incompatible versions of the protocol operating, from which two distinct blockchains emerge.
Forks are when major technical upgrades or changes need to be made to the network and change the "rules" of the protocol. Ethereum clients must update their software to implement the new fork rules. The fork moved the funds from the faulty contract to a new contract allowing anyone who lost funds in the hack to recover them. This course of action was voted on by the Ethereum community. Any ETH holder was able to vote via a transaction on a voting platform. They went on to form Ethereum Classic.
Today, the Ethereum community has adopted a policy of non-intervention in cases of contract bugs or lost funds to maintain the credible neutrality of the system. We had two groups who disagreed strongly enough with each other on some core values to feel it was worth the risks involved to pursue their specific courses of action.
The ability to fork in the face of significant political, philosophical or economic differences plays a large part in the success of Ethereum governance. Without the ability to fork the alternative was ongoing in-fighting, forced reluctant participation for those who eventually formed Ethereum Classic and an increasingly differing vision of how success for Ethereum looks.
The Ethereum governance process often trades off speed and efficiency for openness and inclusivity. In order to accelerate the development of the Beacon Chain, it was launched separately from the proof-of-work Ethereum network and followed its own governance practices.
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